Portland, Oregon-based Columbia Steel Casting Co. poured its last casting on October 28. The company announced during August its plans to close the 121-year-old foundry. Columbia Steel manufactured a variety of steel parts, including ground-engaging tools and wear protection items for dragline buckets and shovel dippers. “Unfortunately, our efforts to secure a new owner or financing for Columbia Steel have not come to fruition,” said Marth Cox, president and CEO of Columbia Steel. Cox cited the effects of offshore competition often is government subsidized as the primary reason for the closure. She also mentioned supply chain disruptions, increased state and local environmental regulations, fees on energy-intensive industries, and the inability to hire and retain sufficient quality mill workers even after substantial pay increases.